The migration of the steppe peoples of Central and Eastern Asia into the Middle East, which began during the 10th and 11th centuries, reached its climax with the coming in the 13th century of the heathen Mongols, who conquered the whole of South and West Asia and incorporated it into an empire which had its capital in the East, first in Mongolia and later in Peking. The Mongols ruled over Central Asia, Iran and Iraq, Anatolia and invaded Syria several times. After their conversion en masse to Islam, several new Islamic states with a strong Turko-Mongol flavor emerged in the Middle East.